WORLD HERITAGE CONVENTION 1972
Who has ever heard of a Bakery with electric machinery when horse drawn deliveries were the norm? Herstmonceux had electricity well before most large towns, because of Major Charles de Roemer, who also manufactured seaplanes for the British Admiralty (Royal Navy) in Eastbourne, from 1911 to 1924.
EVEN MORE LOCAL HISTORY - James married Sarah Shorter who had recently had a son Robert. Although it is not clear who Robert's father was, James certainly took on that role. Two of Robert's great-grandchildren, Stephen (1880-1940) and Robert Honeysett (1884-1912), were bakers and confectioners using the latest electric baking machinery as is clear from the sign writing on the side of this horse drawn wagon. Herstmonceux Bakery was one of the few in England at the time that could boast such innovation - all due to the Baron de Roemer and his son Charles. This photograph is from an old postcard courtesy of Mick Hall. In 1982 one villager told the Museum's curator that he would stand at the top of Lime Cross hill and look down to the village, where he could see the lights in the Bakery growing bright then dim in time with the sound of the generating engines in Lime Park. This picture is evidence that that conversation was more then likely factual. We do not know the name of the gentleman telling that tale, and he was retired then in 1982, so has more than likely gone to a better place. We are though pleased to be able to relay it to you for the record.
The General Conference of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization meeting in Paris from 17 October to 21 November 1972, at its seventeenth session,
I. DEFINITION OF THE CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE
II. NATIONAL PROTECTION and INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION of the CULTURAL and NATURAL HERITAGE
(b) to set up within its territories, where such services do not exist, one or more services for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage with an appropriate staff and possessing the means to discharge their functions;
(c) to develop scientific and technical studies and research and to work out such operating methods as will make the State capable of counteracting the dangers that threaten its cultural or natural heritage;
(d) to take the appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of this heritage; and
to foster the establishment or development of national or regional centres for training in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage and to encourage scientific research in this field.
2. The States Parties undertake, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, to give their help in the identification, protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11 if the States on whose territory it is situated so request.
Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to take any deliberate measures which might damage directly or indirectly the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 situated on the territory of other States Parties to this Convention.
1920s - Sam Hayward is seen here on the left standing by their (then) latest addition to a delivery fleet that was previously horse drawn. It looks as though the Honeysett Brothers (S & A), seen in the picture above, prospered as a result of the Electric Machine Bakery, proudly continuing to advertise this fact well into the era of petrol driven vans for deliveries. And note, the wheels are wooden. Note also the wicker basket used to deliver loaves. The only surprise here is that the Herstmonceux Bakery, and indeed, Major de Roemer, were not driving electric vehicles. Herstmonceux Museum operates an electric BMW i3, intending to use it as a shuttle service for patrons from 2024.
III. INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE for the PROTECTION of the WORLD CULTURAL and NATURAL HERITAGE
2. Election of members of the Committee shall ensure an equitable representation of the different regions and cultures of the world.
A representative of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), a representative of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and a representative of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to whom may be added, at the request of States Parties to the Convention meeting in general assembly during the ordinary sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, representatives of other intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations, with similar objectives, may attend the meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity.
2. The term of office of one-third of the members designated at the time of the first election shall, however, cease at the end of the first ordinary session of the General Conference following that at which they were elected; and the term of office of a further third of the members designated at the same time shall cease at the end of the second ordinary session of the General Conference following that at which they were elected. The names of these members shall be chosen by lot by the President of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization after the first election.
States members of the Committee shall choose as their representatives persons qualified in the field of the cultural or natural heritage.
2. The Committee may at any time invite public or private organizations or individuals to participate in its meetings for consultation on particular problems.
The Committee may create such consultative bodies as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.
2. On the basis of the inventories submitted by States in accordance with paragraph 1, the Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, under the title of "World Heritage List," a list of properties forming part of the cultural heritage and natural heritage, as defined in Articles 1 and 2 of this Convention, which it considers as having outstanding universal value in terms of such criteria as it shall have established. An updated list shall be distributed at least every two years.
3. The inclusion of a property in the World Heritage List requires the consent of the State concerned. The inclusion of a property situated in a territory, sovereignty or jurisdiction over which is claimed by more than one State shall in no way prejudice the rights of the parties to the dispute.
4. The Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, whenever circumstances shall so require, under the title of "List of World Heritage in Danger", a list of the property appearing in the World Heritage List for the conservation of which major operations are necessary and for which assistance has been requested under this Convention. This list shall contain an estimate of the cost of such operations. The list may include only such property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage as is threatened by serious and specific dangers, such as the threat of disappearance caused by accelerated deterioration, large- scale public or private projects or rapid urban or tourist development projects; destruction caused by changes in the use or ownership of the land; major alterations due to unknown causes; abandonment for any reason whatsoever; the outbreak or the threat of an armed conflict; calamities and cataclysms; serious fires, earthquakes, landslides; volcanic eruptions; changes in water level, floods and tidal waves. The Committee may at any time, in case of urgent need, make a new entry in the List of World Heritage in Danger and publicize such entry immediately.
5. The Committee shall define the criteria on the basis of which a property belonging to the cultural or natural heritage may be included in either of the lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article.
6. Before refusing a request for inclusion in one of the two lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article, the Committee shall consult the State Party in whose territory the cultural or natural property in question is situated.
The Committee shall, with the agreement of the States concerned, co-ordinate and encourage the studies and research needed for the drawing up of the lists referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article.
2. Requests for international assistance under paragraph 1 of this article may also be concerned with identification of cultural or natural property defined in Articles 1 and 2, when preliminary investigations have shown that further inquiries would be justified.
3. The Committee shall decide on the action to be taken with regard to these requests, determine where appropriate, the nature and extent of its assistance, and authorize the conclusion, on its behalf, of the necessary arrangements with the government concerned.
4. The Committee shall determine an order of priorities for its operations. It shall in so doing bear in mind the respective importance for the world cultural and natural heritage of the property requiring protection, the need to give international assistance to the property most representative of a natural environment or of the genius and the history of the peoples of the world, the urgency of the work to be done, the resources available to the States on whose territory the threatened property is situated and in particular the extent to which they are able to safeguard such property by their own means.
5. The Committee shall draw up, keep up to date and publicize a list of property for which international assistance has been granted.
6. The Committee shall decide on the use of the resources of the Fund established under Article 15 of this Convention. It shall seek ways of increasing these resources and shall take all useful steps to this end.
7. The Committee shall co-operate with international and national governmental and non-governmental organizations having objectives similar to those of this Convention. For the implementation of its programmes and projects, the Committee may call on such organizations, particularly the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of cultural Property (the Rome Centre), the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), as well as on public and private bodies and individuals.
Decisions of the Committee shall be taken by a majority of two-thirds of its members present and voting. A majority of the members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum.
The Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, utilizing to the fullest extent possible the services of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and the Restoration of Cultural Property (the Rome Centre), the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) in their respective areas of competence and capability, shall prepare the Committee's documentation and the agenda of its meetings and shall have the responsibility for the implementation of its decisions.
2. The Fund shall constitute a trust fund, in conformity with the provisions of the Financial Regulations of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
The resources of the Fund shall consist of:
(a) compulsory and voluntary contributions made by States Parties to this Convention,
Contributions, gifts or bequests which may be made by:
(c) any interest due on the resources of the Fund;
(d) funds raised by collections and receipts from events organized for the benefit of the fund; and
(e) all other resources authorized by the Fund's regulations, as drawn up by the World Heritage Committee.
Contributions to the Fund and other forms of assistance made available to the Committee may be used only for such purposes as the Committee shall define. The Committee may accept contributions to be used only for a certain programme or project, provided that the Committee shall have decided on the implementation of such programme or project. No political conditions may be attached to contributions made to the Fund.
2. However, each State referred to in Article 31 or in Article 32 of this Convention may declare, at the time of the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or accession, that it shall not be bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article.
3. A State Party to the Convention which has made the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article may at any time withdraw the said declaration by notifying the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. However, the withdrawal of the declaration shall not take effect in regard to the compulsory contribution due by the State until the date of the subsequent General Assembly of States parties to the Convention.
4. In order that the Committee may be able to plan its operations effectively, the contributions of States Parties to this Convention which have made the declaration referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, shall be paid on a regular basis, at least every two years, and should not be less than the contributions which they should have paid if they had been bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article.
Any State Party to the Convention which is in arrears with the payment of its compulsory or voluntary contribution for the current year and the calendar year immediately preceding it shall not be eligible as a Member of the World Heritage Committee, although this provision shall not apply to the first election.
V. CONDITIONS AND ARRANGEMENTS FOR INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE
2. Requests based upon disasters or natural calamities should, by reasons of the urgent work which they may involve, be given immediate, priority consideration by the Committee, which should have a reserve fund at its disposal against such contingencies.
Before coming to a decision, the Committee shall carry out such studies and consultations as it deems necessary.
(b) provisions of experts, technicians and skilled labour to ensure that the approved work is correctly carried out;
(c) training of staff and specialists at all levels in the field of identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of the cultural and natural heritage;
(d) supply of equipment which the State concerned does not possess or is not in a position to acquire;
(e) low-interest or interest-free loans which might be repayable on a long-term basis;
the granting, in exceptional cases and for special reasons, of non-repayable subsidies.
VI. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES
They shall undertake to keep the public broadly informed of the dangers threatening this heritage and of the activities carried on in pursuance of this Convention.
2. These reports shall be brought to the attention of the World Heritage Committee.
The Committee shall submit a report on its activities at each of the ordinary sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
The instruments of ratification or acceptance shall be deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
- with regard to the provisions of this Convention, the implementation of which comes under the legal jurisdiction of individual constituent States, countries, provinces or cantons that are not obliged by the constitutional system of the federation to take legislative measures, the federal government shall inform the competent authorities of such States, countries, provinces or cantons of the said provisions, with its recommendation for their adoption.
2. The denunciation shall be notified by an instrument in writing, deposited with the Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
The denunciation shall take effect twelve months after the receipt of the instrument of denunciation. It shall not affect the financial obligations of the denouncing State until the date on which the withdrawal takes effect.
If the General Conference should adopt a new convention revising this Convention in whole or in part, then, unless the new convention otherwise provides, this Convention shall cease to be open to ratification, acceptance or accession, as from the date on which the new revising convention enters into force.
These instruction from February of 1911, reveal a great deal about the technology on site. They are on of the exhibits on display, alongside other innovative firsts that took place in this Sussex backwater.
7 place Fontenoy,
75007 Paris, France.
UK TENTATIVE LIST
Should Herstmonceux Electricity Generating Works & Battery Energy Storage Utility be included, the complex would come under the heading 'Energy Technology.' The Trust share the same ideals, aims and objectives as those defined by the World Heritage Convention 16th November 1972.
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